Attic ventilation: installation diagrams and methods
Thus, under any circumstances, attic ventilation is necessary and it is desirable to provide for it at the design stage of the building. Properly arranged ventilation will eliminate the appearance of condensation on the windows in the attic rooms used under the attic, as well as prevent the appearance of mold, which occurs regardless of the materials used in the construction of the house.
Properly executed ventilation system will remove the excess humidity of the air, which ultimately will affect the resource of the roof in general and the state of the vapor barrier materials in particular.
Ventilation of attic rooms depending on their use
As already mentioned, attics are residential and non-residential. This leads to a fundamental difference in the design of two types of attic ventilation systems.
- Ventilation cold attic. It does not represent particularly complex design patterns.Usually, fresh cold air is supplied by airways, arranged under the overhangs of the roof truss system. This contributes to the displacement of warmer air, for the exit of which dormer windows or other special openings are mounted in the upper part of the gable or slope. The reliability of such a natural air intake and exhaust system can only be broken by poor insulation between the living room and the attic. As a result, excess heat will penetrate from the bottom up and stalactites with stalagmites will grow in the attic. That, naturally, will contribute to the rotting of the roof rafters.
- Ventilation insulated attic. As a rule, mansard rooms, if the house is used all year round, have a heating system. This greatly complicates the ventilation of the room. In this case, besides the inflow-exhaust ventilation system, it is necessary to install the ventilation of the roofing pie. Modern roofing materials are produced taking into account the fact that a counter grille with ventilation gaps will be mounted between them. This option is by far the most preferred.
Among other things, it is necessary to take into account that the ventilation system of the heated attic is located in the complex. It must be calculated taking into account pipe insulation, insulation of other communications, as well as the characteristics of the insulating materials used.
Two types of supply and exhaust ventilation
Supply and exhaust ventilation has two versions - natural or forced. Natural, as already mentioned, provides the flow of cold air through the lower holes and warm out through the airways located in the upper part of the attic walls. The disadvantages of such a system are detected in hot weather, when there is not enough cold air to ventilate the room.
Forced ventilation and exhaust ventilation is more efficient, but also more expensive. It requires installation of an exhaust cooler in the upper part of the roof of the roof, which brings warm air to the outside. Simultaneously with this process, warm air is replaced from below by colder air, which ensures good ventilation of the attic. Such a system does not depend on climatic conditions, it works equally effectively both in winter and in summer.
Air discharge methods
There are various technical solutions that allow air to be expelled out of the attic space to be replaced.
- Bypass channel through the ridge. This method is universal for both insulated and cold roofs. Under the ridge strip on the layer of corrugated sheet metal or metal is arranged produh, closed mesh. This window contributes to the fact that in the cold season the condensate will flow out onto the ramp and not into the room.
- Pediment bends. Dormer windows, mounted on the top of the gable, are the traditional solution for removing warm air from the attic, located under the gable, sloping and hip roofs. They provide air exchange only in cold, non-residential attic rooms and should be covered with a decorative grille to prevent birds from entering the attic.
- Device vents on the front of the attic. Their design differs from the gabled bends of cold roofs in that a grille with adjustable lamellae or non-return valves is placed inside, if a fan is used to exhaust air.
- Aerators mounted in the roof slopes. A method that has long been known and used since time immemorial. The difference is that modern aerators are significantly different in construction from simple pipes that can be seen mounted in the roofs of the houses of the old private sector. They prevent the formation of condensate, which flows back to the room along the walls of simple aeration pipes.
- The inlet valve on the windows of the attic. Warm attic rooms are built without dormer windows, but on ordinary windows it is necessary to install a supply valve that will allow metered air intake from the street. The industry today produces inlet valves, adjustable both manually and automatically.
Two ways of blowing device for air supply
In one case, for the supply of fresh air in the lower part of the overhang of the roof there are vertically attached protective barriers, so-called spotlights. The intensity of the flow is determined by the alternation of gratings and solid strips.
The second option is not fundamentally different from the first. The principle is the same, but the grilles are mounted vertically. Additional efforts are required for mounting over the grates of an additional eaves strip, but on the other hand, such a structure in winter serves not only for ventilation, but also for removing condensate.
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