Dog reflex classification
The most important unconditional acts have long been known, but the generally accepted classification of dog reflexes has not yet been determined. Allocate the following unconditional: food, defensive, sexual, indicative, parental and others from a large group of diverse behavior. For example, the food reflex includes food, food, food, food, food and secretory reactions that form the corresponding behavior of dogs.
The following classification of dog reflexes is adopted:
1. Reflexes of general activity (polarity of movement, cone rhythm - sleep and wakefulness of diurnal animals, rod lightrhythm - sleep and wakefulness of nocturnal animals).
2. Reflexes exchange (gas exchange, food search, food directionality, food mastering and drinking).
3. Reflexes of interspecific relations (defensive or self-preserving, aggressive, playful and the reaction of "one's own").
4. Reflexes of the continuation of the species and self-preservation (male sexual, female sexual, parental and conscription).
5.Ecological reflexes (research, acclimatization-migration and norognezdovoy, the accumulation of odors and hygienic).
6. Reflexes non-cognitive (nociceptive - pain, shock, thermoregulatory and positional). This group may also include some other reflexes: digestive, respiratory, vasomotor, and copulation reflexes.
Each of these reflexes has a positive and negative significance depending on the prevalence of arousal or inhibition, or the forgogenesis of behavior. The process of knowing them is also possible in the classical classification of reflexes (Table 6.1).
The third classification of J. Timbrock identifies the following types in the behavior of animals:
1. Behavior, determined by the metabolism and consisting of food production and eating, urination and defecation, food storage, rest and sleep, sipping.
2. Behavior is comfortable.
3. Defensive behavior.
4. Breeding behavior, consisting of territorial behavior, mating and caring for offspring.
5. Social behavior (group).
6. Construction of the nest, burrow, shelter.
Discussing ethological classifications of behavior, we note the repetition of the classification of unconditioned reflexes, made even in Pavlovsk school.
Classical reflex classification
A. Reflexes to preserve the internal environment of the body and the constancy of the substance
B. Reflexes to changes in the external environment of the body
B. Reflexes associated with the preservation of the species
1. Food, ensuring the constancy of the substance
2. Homeostatic, ensuring the constancy of the internal environment
2. Environmental (situational)
Finally, the fourth classification proposes to combine all unconditional acts into two groups:
I. Reflexive reflexes: reflexes of substances entering the body (inhale and swallow); 2) reflexes removal of substances from the body (exhalation, urination and defecation); 3) recovery reflexes (sleep); 4) reflexes of preserving the species (copulation, pregnancy, care for the offspring).
P. Reflexes defensive: 1) acts of removing the body or its parts from the harmful irritant (withdrawal or retreat); 2) acts of removing the injurious stimulus from the surface or from inside the body (acts of eliminating the stimulus); 3) acts of destruction or neutralization of harmful agents (offensive acts).
The similarity of these classifications objectively reflects the commonality of different types of behavior.As far as they are schematic and incomplete, you can see in one of the fundamental acts - tentative. The following groups of phenomena are found in this reflex: the elementary form in the form of activation of the sense organs and the whole organism to a sudden change in the environment, more complex in the form of active search and, finally, the most complex form is the “manipulation” of objects.
The first form of the indicative act is the “what is?” Reflex. It consists of a number of behavioral reactions: dilation of the pupil and lowering the threshold of sensitivity of the eye to light, contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the eye and ear; turning the head and torso in the direction of the source of irritation, smelling it, changing the electrical activity of the brain (oppression, blockage of the a-rhythm and the occurrence of frequent fluctuations), the appearance of a galvanic skin response. In addition, the blood vessels of the head dilate, and the extremities narrow, there is a deepening of breathing, first slowing down, and then an increase in pulse rate.
The second form of the indicative act in the form of search movements is well expressed in birds and mammals. This reaction is associated with other unconditioned reflexes, thanks to her, the animal finds food, an individual of the opposite sex and avoids harmful circumstances.Search reaction, in contrast to the “what is it?” Reflex, is more often of a specialized behavior.
The third form of the orienting act arose in the monkeys in the form of a research reaction, which the naturalists had long noticed and called curiosity. Monkeys, unlike other animals, such as dogs, encounter an unfamiliar and clearly inedible or non-dangerous object, and subject it to careful analysis. She can manipulate for hours with a clearly useless object for her in all respects. This desire to explore, manipulate, dismember unfamiliar objects, even if they do not cause unconditional acts, shows that the monkey has a research reaction, to some extent, isolated from the other unconditional. This is also a “what is it?” Reflex, but it is already of a higher order, resembling curiosity as a prelude to a special form of dog behavior.
Unconditional behavioral act is the dog's response to the stimulus and is absolutely not dependent on learning.
For example, if you scratch your dog on your back or side, it will fall to the ground and scratch your shoulder with your hind paw.The severity of this behavioral act in some breeds is stronger than in others. The dog, like other animals, is a "bunch" of reflexes.
The medical dictionary, defining reflexes as “an unconscious, unchanging, adaptive response to a stimulus,” lists and describes 250 reflexes. Dogs possess most of these reflexes. Many reflexes are the names of researchers who found them in people. Some dog breeds have reflexes unusual for dogs of other breeds, for example, the “smile reflex” described by Leon F. Whitney. Every time, having felt the pleasure, the dog stretches his lips and “smiles”. Another reflex - sharp exposure of the penis - is observed only in the species close to the dog. At the base of the penis is a sensitive area - the bulbs, when you click on that penis dog right there is exposed. For some, such a reflex occurs when the dog is in a sitting position. Leon F. Whitney also described the reflex area, which is in the vulva ("loop"). The pressure on this area of the puppy's head or buttocks during childbirth causes the bitch to strain to help the puppy to be born. This reflex is often used by veterinarians, helping the bitches incapable or unable to independently bathe.If you insert a finger in the loop, bend it and pull back, bitches almost always begin to actively push. Perhaps this reflex, causing peristalsis, or undulating movements of the uterus, contribute to fertilization. The bulbs of the penis of a dog strongly press on this area and cause peristalsis.
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