The organs of vision are protected from damage by their position in the deep depressions of the skull and by some other surrounding structures.
Eyebrows prevent sweat, water and solids from entering the eyes from the forehead, b Eyelids - folds of the skin, closing, completely covering and protecting the eyes. They also serve as a barrier that protects the eyes from foreign bodies getting into them; the inner membrane of each century is a continuation of the conjunctiva. Blinking is a defensive reaction of the eyelid that smears a tear fluid over the front surface of the eyeball, thus washing it. It occurs every 2–10 seconds, and the frequency increases with stress, in a polluted atmosphere or when tired, and decreases during periods of concentration, with the Conjunctiva a transparent protective layer covering the front of the eyeball, d Eyelashes are long, thick hair growing from each century . They prevent foreign bodies from getting into the eyes and trigger the protective blinking mechanism when they are suddenly touched. The lacrimal glands produce a watery, saline liquid that flushes the front surface of the eyeball and acts as a disinfectant.It also lubricates the eyeball so that it can move. The glands can produce tears — excess fluid — when irritated or agitated by strong emotions, f Tear ducts drain fluid from the surface of the eye into the tear sacs, from which there is a passage into the nasal cavity. When the channels can not provide a sufficiently rapid outflow of fluid, they overflow, and the fluid is spilled on the face in the form of tears.
Damage to the eye and the area immediately adjacent to it should be the subject of careful attention by a medical professional. Even if the damage itself is minor, the risk of infection is high. The eyes are quite strong, but because of their particular importance, they must be treated very carefully.
Small specks in the eye, accidentally falling into the eye, are usually removed by blinking. If this does not help, pull the upper eyelid forward and down over the bottom. When the upper eyelid is back in place, the speck may shift. It can also be removed with a corner of the handkerchief or blowing it to the edge. If none of these measures help, delay, consult a doctor in order to avoid scratching the eyes and possible infection.
Bruises- Bruising in the eyelids and surrounding tissues. With this you can fight with a cold compress. If a bruise occurs after a blow to the head, consult a doctor.
Barley is an inflammation of the sebaceous gland (see Chapter 4) around the eyelashes, which is caused by a bacterial infection. This is most common in adolescents. Thus, much of the eyelid may be infected. For the treatment of barley, remove the infected eyelash and rinse the eye regularly several times a day until the barley bursts. In extreme cases, antibiotics are used.
Conjunctivitis- is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which can be caused by infection or irritation. The infection is treated with eye drops containing antibiotics. An irritant, such as an inward growing eyelash, is removed. Rinsing the eye with warm water and infusions will help the fastest recovery. Bandages and tampons promote the growth of bacteria, but dark glasses or visors above the eyes will protect the eyes from even more irritation with light, dust and wind. Conjunctivitis should be treated as early as possible to prevent complications such as corneal ulcers.Conjunctivitis is also an important symptom of trachoma, a serious tropical disease caused by the microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis.
Cataract- this is the clouding of the lens of the eye, caused by the coagulation of the protein in the fibers from which it consists. Cataracts often occur spontaneously in the elderly. It can also be caused by eye trauma, severe malnutrition, electrical shock and many medications. Rubella, measles and other diseases during pregnancy can lead to a child's congenital cataract; it can also be caused by diabetes. The main symptoms of a cataract are changes in color vision, growing myopia, blurred vision and light scattering. Cataract can lead to poor eyesight, but not blindness, and can affect one or both eyes. The only treatment is to remove the lens. Subsequently, in nearsighted people, vision can improve somewhat, but others need to wear glasses to restore accurate focus.
Glaucomacaused by an increase in the pressure of aqueous humor, a fluid that fills the outer chamber of the eye between the cornea and the lens.The reason for this is often a blockage of the channels that drain excess fluid from the eye. Glaucoma usually occurs gradually, with almost no symptoms, and often becomes noticeable only when part of the visual field is lost. Without treatment, glaucoma leads to blindness. It can be treated in the early stages of drugs that limit the production of intraocular fluid and improve drainage, and in the later stages of surgery. Glaucoma mainly affects the elderly, and everyone who has reached the age of 40 is advised to undergo an eye pressure examination by a doctor. Glaucoma sometimes also occurs in an acute form (suddenly), and symptoms include recurring vision of blue, green, orange, yellow and red circles around the lanterns, dull pain in or around the eye, blurred vision, redness of the eye. Such symptoms should be reported to the ophthalmologist.
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