How to make plaster walls without beacons with their own hands
To do the work of plastering walls without the use of lighthouses must be extremely carefully and carefully. Otherwise, their surfaces will be uneven and ugly.
Where to begin
First of all, of course, you need to prepare the walls themselves for applying the plaster. This can be done in several ways. The method of preparing the walls for plastering will depend primarily on the material from which they were erected. So, in the brickwork in advance, you will most likely have to increase the depth of the seams. It will be necessary to apply notches on concrete surfaces with the help of a hammer and a file.
On the wooden walls before plastering, the crate is usually packed from battens or strips cut from plywood. Mount such a material before applying the cement-sand mortar diagonally.
Of course, walls erected from any material must be carefully cleaned of dust before plastering. Also, they should remove greasy and dirty stains.
How and what to prime surfaces
Cleaned walls for better adhesion should also be pre-primed. If this is not done, the cement-sand mortar will not last long on their surface.
Ground the walls under the cement plaster is usually acrylic compositions. Such mixtures can be used for pre-treatment of both concrete and brick or wood surfaces. It is possible to prime walls erected from any material, and using a universal perchlorovinyl compound.
Concrete and masonry surfaces are very often treated with concrete contact before plastering. This modern mixture is usually used for very smooth or old crumbling walls.
Before applying the primer, all treated surfaces should be moistened with water. The composition itself is applied to the walls simply using a brush or roller. Concrete and masonry surfaces before plastering primer often in two layers. Wooden walls are treated with such compositions at least four times.
How to make a solution
Plaster mix for wall finishing is best prepared in a not too deep trough at 4-6 liters.Stir the solution can be shovel or chopper. Also for the preparation of plaster need buckets and a scoop.
Walls without beacons can be plastered with the use of both purchased and self-made mixtures. With their own hands, the solution is usually kneaded using sifted fine sand and cement in a ratio of 2 to 1 or 3 to 1.
In order to hold the plaster on the walls in the future firmly, you can additionally add PVA glue to the mixture. Also, the cement-sand composition is sometimes improved with alabaster or lime. Such plasticizers are added to the solution little by little. A small room of lime or alabaster, for example, usually takes about 1.5 kg.
How to plaster
The technology of finishing the walls with cement-sand mortar can be used different. But in any case, concrete, wood and brick surfaces without the use of beacons are usually plastered in two layers. Most often for the processing of walls used this technology:
- a thick plaster layer is applied on the walls with a thickness of approximately 5 cm;
- the solution is leveled;
- the wall is treated with a more liquid composition also with a 3 cm leveling.
What tools are needed
For plastering walls without beacons with their own hands will need to prepare:
- plastering bucket;
- putty knife;
To align the already finished surfaces you will also need a long rule.
Applying the first layer
For the first layer of plaster cement-sand mortar is prepared in a proportion of 1/2. The consistency of the finished composition should not be liquid and not too thick. In fact, the very technology of applying the first plaster layer to the walls looks like this:
- the wall is abundantly moistened with water;
- with the help of a plastering bucket, small portions of the solution are thrown over its surface with sharp movements;
- the solution gently spread on the surface of the wall.
Painted on the wall using this technique pieces of the solution should be flattened into "cakes". In this case, the composition should not run off the wall or crack.
Throwing "flatbread" on a concrete, brick or wooden surface should be done with a slight overlap on each other. When processing a wall using this technology, a hand throw is made in a horizontal plane. In this case, the bucket is tilted at an angle of about 20 °, the solution itself is thrown up slightly.
If desired, the mixture according to this technology can be applied to the walls and a trowel. But it is best to use a plaster bucket. This handy fixture has smooth semi-circular walls. Therefore, the solution flies off very easily. Consequently, the work when using the bucket will be much easier.
Leveling the solution with a scraper
The wall is trimmed according to the technology described above in small sections. While the solution is not grabbed, applied on the surface to be treated "cakes" carefully align. For this:
- tightly pressed to the surface of the plaster plaster;
- spend this tool up the "cakes", making wave-like movements.
Next, throw pieces of cement to the next section of the wall and align it in the same way. This is done until the entire concrete, brick or wooden surface is covered with an even layer of plaster.
Alignment using the rule
By applying the second layer of cement plaster on the wall, you can proceed no earlier than two hours after the wall is processed for the first time.After this time, the walls are additionally trimmed with a long rule.
This tool is first pressed against the wall in a vertical plane. Then they are simply carefully stitched plastered surface, removing all the bumps and irregularities. Then the same operation is performed in the horizontal plane.
Applying a second layer: step by step instructions
The second layer of plaster on the wall is applied as follows:
- a liquid cement-sand mortar, prepared in a proportion of 1/3, with the help of the same scoop, is thrown over the surface to be treated in very small areas — approximately 20x20 cm;
- rub the applied mixture with a trowel from bottom to top, filling in all the voids remaining on the wall and blocking the hillocks;
- scrape the remaining solution off the trowel back into the trough and repeat the operation on the next section of the wall.
Ideally, the thickness of the finishing plaster layer applied in this way should not exceed 3 mm. If necessary, this figure can be increased to a maximum of 5 mm. But in any case, applying too thick layer of cement-sand mixture during plastering of concrete, brick or wooden surfaces is not recommended.Otherwise, subsequent walls may become cracked.
Plaster walls without beacons: trowel layer
In principle, after drying of the finishing layer, the walls will already look quite neat. But to make them even smoother, they should be applied another very thin troweling layer of plaster.
Treat the walls in this case as follows:
- wait until grab the top layer of plaster;
- recruit a small portion of the solution prepared in the previous step;
- spread it in a separate container;
- add to the plaster solution of water to obtain a very liquid mixture;
- pick up the solution with a scoop and pour it on the wall, starting from the top;
- Immediately rub the poured portion over the surface with a float.
It is necessary to grind the liquid plaster with a float very carefully, rather strongly pressing the tool, in a circular motion.
The final stage
After all the walls are plastered and the grout dries, you will need to trim the corners in the room. Perform this operation usually using a long rule.
This tool is placed in a vertical plane and tightly pressed to the corner.Further, from top to bottom, perform a sweep. Thus process all four corners of the room.
After 5-6 hours after applying the grout layer, the walls can be further trimmed with a grater. To do this, their surface is first moistened with plenty of water. Next, the surface of the walls cleaned with a float in a circular motion.
If the walls are supposed to be puttied in the future, the final stripping can be avoided. Such a procedure is obligatory when plastered surfaces in the room are supposed to be covered with thin wallpaper in the future. Also, an additional walk on the walls with a float is also worth it if they got off with a solution for painting.
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