Pediculosis - what are the symptoms, symptoms, home treatment and prevention

On pediculosis heard parents whose children attend kindergarten or school. In the article you will learn what is pediculosis, the causes, symptoms and ways of treating the disease at home.

Pediculosis is a skin disease caused by a human louse. A louse is an insect of small size, parasitic on the skin and clothing.

Lice are parasitic only in mammals. They drink the blood of the host, and breed eggs, which are attached to the hair. With lice, humanity met a long time. During the excavations, archaeologists found dried insects in Egyptian mummies. The first information about lice is found in the records of Aristotle, who are about 2500 years old.

In the XXI century in Europe, the peak incidence of pediculosis in August, when the kids are returning from summer camps. There are outbreaks of the disease in sanatoriums, kindergartens and schools.Modern people live in better socio-economic conditions than their ancestors. Increased material well-being. Despite this, the level of infection with head lice is constantly increasing. In some countries, the defeat is epidemic.

Head louse - a tiny parasite that gets on the skin of the head during close contact with the patient, using his comb, headgear and other personal items. In blacks, head lice is rare due to the structure of the hair.

Adult lice do not jump or fly, but crawl. When they reach healthy hair, they rapidly multiply, laying eggs - nits. Using chitin, they attach nits to the hair shaft.

Lifetime of head lice is one month. An adult individual lays up to ten eggs per day, which in one decade become immature individuals. After another week, maturation ends.

According to statistics, every fifth person is confronted with head lice, regardless of social level. Therefore, the statement that lice is a disease of dysfunctional members of the population is not true.

Symptoms and causes of pediculosis

Pediculosis is an unpleasant disease, you can't argue with that. The infected person experiences a huge discomfort only from the realization that small biting parasites live on his body. The society attributes ugly labels to pediculosis, as a result of which people are ashamed to report a disease and state that the causes of problems are poor immunity and great stress.

For many, lice causes strong fear. I think, it's worth the fear of dangerous complications, to which the disease can lead. Lice often suffer rickettsiosis and typhus.

Where can I get pediculosis?

  • The transfer of insects contribute to the accumulation of people. Lice are more likely to sit on clean hair, because in such conditions it is easier for them to get food and reproduce.
  • You can pick up the infection in a barbershop, pool, hospital, bath or subway. Even in the elevator of an ordinary apartment building.
  • The spread of lice contribute to the epidemic, war, hunger strike, when it is difficult to maintain cleanliness.

If you carefully examine the list, it is clear that the causes of lice are social in nature. Pediculosis appears in contact with the infected, in a group of people, in the absence of personal hygiene.

The duration of the latent period of lice development is 1-1.5 months. This time is enough for the female to have time to lay a large number of eggs. Later from the nits will appear tiny larvae, which, together with adult insects begin to actively feed. At this point, the symptoms of lice appear. They, like a cold or chickenpox, a lot.

Symptoms

  1. Bite sites itch a lot. With the pubic form of the disease, itching is worse at night, with a pediculosis, it is intolerable. With head lice, the back of the head, temples and the skin behind the ears suffer the most.
  2. During a careful examination of the head at the site of bites, wounds are found. Often in this area there is a strong rash, indicating an allergic reaction to the lice contained in the saliva.
  3. If the disease is not recognized for a long time, the skin is covered with scratching and excoriation, due to the constant scratching of the bite sites. On the place of scratching, wounds appear on the surface of which crusts form. Such combs are dangerous, as these are the open doors for infections.
  4. Detection of nits that twine around a hair in the form of a tiny bubble is a typical manifestation of the disease. Live nits are yellowish in color, and the dead ones are gray. If you crush nits with a fingernail, a click sounds.

Diagnosis of pediculosis is simple. The presence of the described symptoms, live lice, nits is evidence of the disease.

Types of lice

Many are of the opinion that lice are a lot of wartime and homelessness. In fact, these tiny and harmful insects can appear on the head of any person.

Head louse

Dwells in the scalp, preferring the temporal and occipital areas. In these places, the greatest concentration of bites. Lice feed on blood. When biting into the wound gets an irritating substance that causes itching.

Cootie

Activity on the body is fraught with the appearance of itching and other troubles. A louse suffers dangerous diseases - fever, typhus. It differs from head lice in its habitat - in the folds of clothes, where it lays eggs. Bites are located in the places of contact of clothes with the body: collar area, knee bends, belt.

Pubic louse

A tiny parasite lives in the anal and pubic areas, giving the owner a lot of trouble. In most cases, pubic lice is transmitted during intercourse. If the body has a well-defined hairline, the disease can affect other areas.

Unfortunately, the level of lice increases yearly. This is due to the mitigation of climate and poor awareness of the disease. Improper therapy leads to secondary infection and contributes to the adaptation of the parasites to drugs.

Treatment of pediculosis at home

Pediculosis is a disease that causes a feeling of disgust. Tiny parasites that feed on human blood, no one likes. The society has assigned the status of a disease of underprivileged people to lice, as a result of which it is considered shameful to suffer from pediculosis.

The person who discovered the lice, hides it in every way. Pediculosis is characterized by high prevalence, since people do not even realize that the carrier of blood-sucking parasites is nearby. The consequence is the lack of precautions.

With the appearance of lice does not necessarily go to the clinic. Modern pharmacology helps to treat pediculosis at home, and traditional medicine has not been canceled.

It is also possible to treat children at home, but with certain exceptions. You will have to consult a doctor if: a child is less than two years old, allergic or asthmatic, lice and nits are located on the eyebrows and eyelashes.

Medications

The range of drugs aimed at combating head lice is quite extensive. Anyone can choose an effective drug against annoying lice.

  1. Chemerichnaya water. The solution has a neurotoxic effect on sexually mature parasites. Apply the product to wet hair and rinse with warm water in half an hour.
  2. Lauri. Several forms of the presented agent are sold - cream, solution or shampoo. Doctors do not recommend use for skin diseases.
  3. Medyfox. Effective drug in the fight against nits and adult lice. This concentrated liquid is released in bottles and small ampoules.
  4. Pair plus. Combination spray. The composition includes a number of active substances that kill blood-sucking parasites.
  5. Nittifor. The drug is based on the active substance permethrin. Produced in the form of a cream and a solution eliminates fleas, lice, ticks.
  6. .Cream with antiparasitic action. Efficiency in the fight against larvae, nits and adult lice demonstrated repeatedly.
  7. Hygia and Pedilin. Highly effective parasite shampoos.
  8. Pedex. Yellowish liquid is used to eliminate lice, regardless of the stage of development. After application, eggs, larvae and sexually mature insects disappear.

Any of the above drugs is focused exclusively on external use and is suitable for eliminating lice in children. Some pharmacy products have age limits.Before use, be sure to consult a doctor.

Folk remedies

Many people prefer to treat pediculosis using popular folk methods. I will consider the folk remedies, with the help of which they fight with ectoparasites.

  • Infusion Herb Elecampane. Five tablespoons of chopped grass pour a liter of boiling water, insist for about an hour and use it to wash your head. Cooking means better in a thermos.
  • Angelica and bird cherry. From the roots of plants make excellent remedy against pediculosis. From dry roots make a powder that is mixed with fat. The resulting ointment is recommended to treat the habitat of lice daily for one week.
  • Geranium. It has long been known that the smell of geranium repels lice. During the treatment of pediculosis, geranium oil is added to balms, hair masks, shampoos and conditioners.
  • Mint and Pomegranate Juice. Pour 200 milliliters of natural pomegranate juice into a small container, add two tablespoons of herbs and boil over a minimum heat of about 8 minutes. After cooling down, rub in the hair roots and use to moisturize the scalp.
  • . Thoroughly lather your head with tar soap, wrap it up with a film and wait half an hour, then wash off the foam with shampoo and apply any hair balm. Use a thick scallop to remove dead lice.
  • Kerosene. In the old days, lice struggled with kerosene, having previously diluted it with vegetable oil in the ratio of 1 to 12. Before going to sleep with this mixture, hair was treated, covered with a plastic bag, wrapped with a handkerchief and left until morning. Then the composition was washed with warm water with shampoo and combed hair with a comb.
  • Vinegar. For pediculosis, moisten the hair with vinegar, wrap in a towel, leave for two hours and rinse with water and soap. After the water treatment, it is recommended to rinse the hair with vinegar. Suitable wine, alcohol or apple cider vinegar of low concentration.
  • Dichlorvos. The most radical method of dealing with pediculosis involves treating the head with dichlorvos.This insecticide perfectly copes with the task, but I do not advise resorting to its use, even as a last resort.
  • Turpentine. Before use, dilute turpentine with vegetable oil in the ratio of 1 to 8. Next, put on an oil-cloth cap on the head, wait about an hour, wash and comb the hair.
  • Garlic. From several cloves of garlic make a gruel and rub it into the scalp three times a day. In about four days the insects will die. Will have to wash his hair and comb out the bodies of parasites.
  • Eastern recipe. Mix apple cider vinegar with roman coriander in equal quantities. Rub the head and hair with the mixture. Stand in the sun for at least 20 minutes. Two treatments completely eliminate pediculosis.

With lice to cope will help the next reception. Bed and underwear for 20 minutes, boil in water with the addition of some insecticide. After the things hang out in the fresh air and leave for a week. Lack of food will lead to the death of parasites.

Disadvantages and side effects of folk remedies

People consider naturalness as the main advantage of folk remedies against pediculosis.This is true, but some have flaws and side effects.

  1. Kerosene. In addition to the destruction of lice detrimental effect on the hair follicles. Kerosene is poorly washed off, when it gets into the eyes, it triggers a complex inflammatory process, and couples can provoke severe poisoning.
  2. Vinegar. Dries hair. If not properly diluted, severe burns will appear on the surface of the scalp. Vinegar should not be used to combat pediculosis in children.
  3. Dichlorvos. Toxic substance. Symptoms of poisoning: loss of consciousness, vomiting, convulsions, dizziness, rash, appear immediately after the vapor enters the respiratory system. If dichlorvos appears on the surface of the skin, the listed symptoms appear after a few hours.

Every national drug against pediculosis should be tested on the elbow before use. If there is no reaction after applying the product to the skin, it can be used for the intended purpose. If redness, burning and other symptoms appear, the self-made medicine should be washed off as quickly as possible.

Lice treatment during pregnancy

When pregnancy is prescribed treatment for pediculosis, completely safe for mom and baby. Optimal choice of methods to combat the disease will help the doctor.

Girls in position should fight lice only with non-toxic drugs.

  • Mechanical removal. The technique is reduced to combing parasites scallop. It is better to carry out the procedure over the bathtub in order to immediately flush off insects. The process is extremely long and less effective than commercial preparations. In addition, nits fixed on the hair will have to be removed by hand. But he is as safe as possible.
  • Apple vinegar. Food should not be diluted with water. Soaked cotton wool in vinegar diligently to process hair, paying particular attention to the back of the head, temples and areas behind the ears. Two hours later, under the plastic bag, rinse off the product and wash the hair thoroughly. Handle vinegar with care, otherwise it will damage the scalp and hair structure.
  • Cranberry. Berry, from which the housewives make excellent fruit drink, the safest destroyer of the shell of nits. From fresh cranberries make juice and process their head and hair. It is recommended to wash off after a few hours.
  • Budra ivy-shaped. A safe and effective tool in the fight against pediculosis. Two tablespoons of Boudra pour vinegar and insist for two days. Prepare the hair twice a day, wait 2 hours, rinse and use a comb.
  • Tea tree oil. Has the best antiparasitic action. Add a couple of drops of oil in the shampoo and the liquid used for rinsing.

The anti-lice drugs considered are effective and safe. If you plan to resort to the help of these and other medicines, consultation with the doctor is obligatory.

Pediculosis prevention measures

The prevention of infection with head lice should be given special attention by people whose work involves constant communication with vagrants and other asocial personalities.

As I have already said, the spread of blood-sicking parasites depends on a number of factors: lack of hygiene, poor living conditions, improper diet.

Measures of prevention of pediculosis do not guarantee one hundred percent prevention of infection, but they significantly reduce the risk of the occurrence of the disease. You should not neglect them.

Home prevention

Home prevention of pediculosis is important for children who regularly attend kindergartens and schools. To reduce the risk of infection of the child, it is necessary to regularly follow elementary preventive rules.

  • Every day, comb your hair and carefully examine the child's head.
  • Long hair for girls to collect in bundles or braids braids.
  • Curls to comb and regularly trim.
  • Children's clothes and bedding change in a timely manner.

Any doctor will tell parents that they should regularly hold explanatory conversations with children. During such conversations, you need to convey to the child that head lice is a dangerous disease and to avoid it, it is not necessary to wear clothing and hats of other children. You must also constantly use your own hygiene items.

Prevention in kindergarten

Unfortunately, pediculosis in preschool institutions is a frequent phenomenon, the causes of which lie in poor parental awareness about prevention.

According to the sanitary rules, nurses of the kindergarten should inspect the children upon admission and weekly after.The head of the kindergarten is obliged to treat the problem with responsibility and to deny admission to infected lice. When a disease occurs, appropriate measures should be taken:

  1. Isolation of infected children.
  2. Search for the source of lice.
  3. Prompt examination of children in contact with infected.
  4. Informing the clinic, in which the sick child is registered.
  5. Conducting wet cleaning and disinfection.
  6. Check the status of group rooms, lockers for clothes and boxes for toys.
  7. Consultation of doctors regarding home prevention of pediculosis.

Pharmacies sell many specialized parasite products that are suitable for use in kindergartens. The focus of the spread of the disease is considered to be eliminated after three examinations of children.

Preventive maintenance at school

Prevention of pediculosis in schools involves medical examinations of children at least 4 times a year. Monthly selective checks are conducted. Children who have lice are found to be removed from school until the problem is eliminated. Return to study is possible only if there is a certificate from the doctor.Healthy children should follow a number of simple rules:

  1. Do not change personal items of clothing with classmates and friends.
  2. Do not use other people's hairbrushes and hairpins, do not give your students other things.
  3. To visit the pool only in a rubber cap.
  4. Do not use towels of other students.

Video "History and treatment of pediculosis"

Summing up, we can say with confidence that the most effective prevention of lice - the timely detection of infected children, followed by their isolation.

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